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Seluar Gunting Cina Figure Seluar Cina Figure Seluar Pantaloon Figure Seluar Kabul Figure Sampin Songket with Kepala Kain Figure Kelubung circa s Figure Kain Dagang Luar circa s Figure Two Malay Men in Jacket and Sarong, circa s. Baju Saloma s Figure Fashion of the 50s Figure Pocket on Woman s Baju Kurung Figure Mini Kurung, s Figure Padded Shoulder s Figure Baju Kurung Cekak Musang, late s Figure Traditional Name for Crossed Fashion, s Figure Mini Kurung matched with Trousers Figure Process of Analysis of Baju Kurung Figure Stitches of Tulang Belut Figure Jahit Kia Figure Attaching Pesak to Kekek Figure Pesak and Kekek Joined to Sleeve Figure Slanted Shoulder and Armhole Line Figure a.

Hem Longer at Sides Figure b. Perfect Hem xvi 20 Figure Waistbands and Zip on Skirt Figure Variation of Waistbands Figure Sarong and Seluar Acheh Figure Western Styled Trousers s to s Figure Western Styled Trousers s to date Figure Tulang Belut Figure Bentuk Kerang or Karipap Stitches Figure Mata Lalat Figure Tulang Peringgi Hand Stitching Figure Hand Buttonhole Stitches Figure Stand Collar with Slit Figure Baju Kurung with Decorative Embroidery xvii 21 Figure Unstitched Sarong Piece Figure Pattern Layout of Baju Kurung Figure Lay out on Batik Fabric with Borders Figure Position of Bulan-Bulan Figure Kekek Figure Mini Kurung as School Uniform Figure Method of Taking Body Measurement Figure V Stitching Turn Figure A Wrapped Jackfruit Figure Merah Kesumba Red Begonia Figure This research looks at the evolution of Baju Kurung in the Peninsular of Malaysia from to The research lays out the differences that had affected the garment throughout that period.

It involves the history of the Baju Kurung, which originated from the era of the Malaccan Sultanate, in the 15 th. Century and continued to develop until to date. The differences observed include its form, shape, style, workmanship, fabrication and influences. The observations resulted in the research is able to define clearly the Baju Kurung and categorized the garments into two distinct groups that are the traditional Baju Kurung and the Malay modern garment.

This study also evaluates the aesthetics of Baju Kurung from the perspective of Malay Aesthetic Principles Zakaria Ali, and to ascertain its traditional aesthetics, character and qualities. This is because the social significance of the Baju Kurung is considered as a reflection of Malay culture. In prehistoric days, human used animal skins, bark of trees and leaves as cover.

However, many primitive people did not see clothing as part of real necessity to protect their bodies from weather and scratches but rather as special wear for specific functions. Wearing the kemban for women and sarong for men and women are believed to be the earliest form of clothing for the Malay people in the Peninsular of Malaysia Zubaidah Shawal, A Chinese envoy, Wang Ta-Yuan as cited in Wheatley noted that the native of the Malay Land in P eng-k eng Pahang wore a piece of long cotton robe girded round with a cotton cord.

The people of Chilan-tan Kelantan wore tunics with black cotton sarong Wheatley,p. These explained that the natives of the Malay Peninsula had used some form of clothing to cover their bodies as early as 14 th century. Wang Ta-Yuan also stated that the natives used beads and gold to decorate themselves. In clothing theory, there are four main functions of dress that are utility, modesty, immodesty and adornment as outlined by cultural theorist, George Sproles, the author of Consumer Behavior Towards Dress Over the time, clothing reflects more uses than mere practical functions.

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Sproles further suggested four more functions known assymbolic differentiation, social affiliation, psychological self-enhancement and modernism Jones, It is believed that Malay people clothed themselves to obey Islamic tenets, which require them to cover their aurat 1 Zubaidah Shawal, Thus, Malay community probably started to wear tailored garments with the arrival of Islam in the s Wan Hussein Azmi, Islam believes that wearing clothes will protect people from immodesty, immoral behaviour and negative perceptions from the community Abdul Aziz Ismail, The Sultan determined the styling of costumes, especially for the Sultan, the royal family and ministers.

From the 15 th century onwards, Malay traditional costumes developed and produced many forms and styles of Malay garments worn by men and women. The styles were derived from previous costumes as well as influences from costumes of other countries such as India, China, Yemen, Arab and Persia Siti Zainon Ismail, The influences of other culture were shown in the coordination of the garment such as accessories, cutting style and fabrication.

In some parts of the Malay Archipelago, Malay dress styling reflects symbolic meaning to the wearer Tenas Effendy In Malay culture, the meanings were usually interpreted through art forms such as architecture, carving, dressing and musical instruments. Generally, the meaning would portray the status of the person and his or her beliefs.

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Symbolism in Malay arts and crafts has long been identified and recognized as a unique heritage passed on by their ancestors orally through idioms, pantun and poems Wan Hashim Wan Teh, In Malay arts and crafts, the meaning of the created art object is 1 aurat in Islam is the area of body which need to be veiled from public.

The aurat of a woman is the whole body except face and the palms of the hands. The aurat of a man is from the navel to the knees. In Malay arts and crafts, the discussion on symbolisms and aesthetic principles often concentrated on motifs of Malay carvings found on boats, houses and mosques, motifs on textiles and Malay traditional embroideries, motifs on ceramics and motifs on weapons such as keris Syed Ahmad Jamal,Wan Hashim Wan Teh, and Abu Bakar Md.

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Colours were used as symbols to signify power and strength, such as in royal status, ministers and military ranks and in traditional medicinal medium Syed Ahmad Jamal, The descriptions of Malay traditional costumes discussed coordination and styles were authored by Azah Aziz,a, b and and Zubaidah Shawalinstructions on making the Malay traditional garments by Salikin Sidekexplanations to dress ethics for formal functions and types of Malay costumes written by Mohd. Siti Zainon Ismailp. The lack of understanding of Malay culture and customs were also the factors that contributed to the development of Malay modern garments that showed the absence of Malay identity Azah Aziz, and Mohammad Najib Md.

Nor Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 15 October The term Baju Kurung is derived from two Malay words baju and kurung. Baju is a noun that refers to blouse, shirt or top garment. Kurung transitive verb means to confine in English Longman Dictionary, In this context, kurung confines or 3 26 cover and clothe the body for modesty.

Traditional suggests that an object that relates closely to tradition and customs of the society Longman Dictionary, Thus, traditional Baju Kurung strictly obeys the original form and style of the garment and goes through the process of traditional garment making Azah Aziz, Nor Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 15 October thought any innovations and modifications to techniques and cuts would change the form of the traditional Baju Kurung from its original look.

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Nor even emphasised on the use of appropriate accessories, hairstyle and make-up to fit the traditional look. There are two main versions of the Baju Kurung.

The difference is Potong Riau or Pesak Gantung has elongated shape for its kekek and wide pesak. Baju Kurung for men uses only Pesak Buluh design. Pesak Buluh is attached to a square cut kekek folded diagonally under the arm further explained in Chapter 4. The main characteristic of the garment is its round neckline with approximately four and a quarter inches slit, pesak side panelskekek underarm gussets and straight long sleeves.

Azah Aziz once again stressed that a Baju Kurung Teluk Belanga must have its traditional cut of pesak, kekek, bulan-bulan neckline with tulang belut stitching and sarong. The sarong should be styled in ombak mengalun on one side of the body. Azah Aziz commented that any other replicate designs that did not have these qualities do not qualify as Baju Kurung. Baju Kurung Cekak Musang or Baju Wan for men and women has a standup collar and placket that runs down in the centre of the front body to the chest line.

It is closed with five studded buttons. Baju Kurung Cekak Musang also has pesak side panelskekek underarm gussets and slightly tapered sleeves. It is matched with sarong that is also styled in ombak mengalun on one side of the body. For many years before the s both garments remained the same with few changes that did not alter its form and style. After that, modifications were made to the blouse length and sarong style. Somehow, fashion designers, garment makers and fashion writers over used the term Baju Kurung and created discomfort among traditionalists.

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Based on the history and development of the Baju Kurung, this study focuses on the original form of the garment, its style, proportion, cut, processes and coordination to categorize the Baju Kurung into traditional and modern forms. Private collection from s. Courtesy of Cantik Creative Creation, Rias The blouse was made of velvet decorated with gold and silver fringes. The sarong was made of songket fabric; also decorated with gold and silver fringes.

Baju Kurung Cekak Musang for Men. The pesak side panels are attached to kekek gusset. Both parts are attached to underarm sleeves. The pesak side panels are attached below the kekek gusset then attached to underarm sleeves. These shapes are only applied to women s blouse. Evolution involves the history of Baju Kurung, the development and present situation of the garment.

The process of evolution involves factors that contribute changes to the look of the garment. Contributing factors could also mean changes of behavioural patterns in the society, influences received by the society, environmental issues and changes in economic status, political beliefs and religion Jones The changes of Baju Kurung happened with or without rules and disciplines in the study of Malay costumes.

Sometimes, the changes abused the name of the Baju Kurung that leads to discomfort among many traditionalists. Siti Zainon Ismail stated the problems occurred due to the lack of understanding of Malay culture and the absence of written guidelines for designing new Baju Kurung. Keghairahan mengenengahkan pakaian tradisional Melayu kerapkali dianggap menyeleweng daripada makna dan konsep pakaian asal.

Penampilan pakaian Melayu tradisional mencerminkan tanpa diimbangi dengan nilai dan makna simbolik dan estetika yang wajar. Namun masalah ini tidak dapat dielakkan kerana tiada panduan khusus tentang peraturan atau disiplin yang menjelaskan makna atau konsep tersebut. The so-called Malay traditional garments were presented without a balance on its appropriate symbolic meaning and aesthetics. However, this problem is unavoidable due to the lack of specific guidelines on the rules and discipline that clarified the intended meaning and concept.

Therefore, clothing as a part of the material culture should be analyzed without alienating it from society s values Haziyah Hussin had focused on the study of traditional textiles motifs. Nawawi and Azah Aziz This research finds that this study is significant in terms of better understanding of Malay traditional costumes especially Baju Kurung.

This research will contribute to the knowledge of Malay tradition and principles of Baju Kurung as the garment evolves. It is also an ideal guide for wide range of disciplines in Malay traditional costumes and fashion. The documentation of the development of Baju Kurung is to achieve the following objectives: This enables the research to differentiate between the traditional Baju Kurung and the Malay modern garment. A clear definition of Baju Kurung will avoid confusion between the two categories and the exploitation of Baju Kurung name on modern garments.

The changes are documented to identify similarities and differences in its form, shape, cut and style. The similarities will strengthen the definition of Baju Kurung, preserve the traditional characteristics and values of Baju Kurung for the sake of Malay heritage and national pride. On the other hand, the differences will contribute towards classification of the Baju Kurung. The Malay aesthetic principles in Baju Kurung will ensure that the image of Malay modern garment reflects grace, elegance and modesty.

The study encompasses the history, culture and development of Baju Kurung from to This involves the making process, its shape, form and style for traditional and current Baju Kurung.

These factors are analyzed to determine the categorization of Baju Kurung and its degree of originality. The coordination and style of the traditional Baju Kurung reflect Malay customs, which indirectly portrays the image of the community.

The Malay dress custom itself is originated from the palaces as practiced by the royals and aristocrats Siti Zainon Ismail, Thus, the research should look into the aspects of Malay dress principles that infused into the Malay aesthetic principles in Baju Kurung. Although Baju Kurung are worn by men and women and carry the same names; the styles and coordination for men and women are different.

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This research involves the making process and design study of Baju Kurung from the perspective of custom and culture. The difficulties and obstacles in achieving information for the research are: Thus, this research relies heavily on photographic images from the National Archive, libraries and museums taken as early as to study the proportion and shape of the garment.

Actual samples observed are from personal collections, boutiques and museums dating from s to 35 b In some states such as Perlis and Penang, Baju Kurung for women is less popular compared to Kebaya 2 and Baju Kedah 3.

Therefore, the samples are very limited. Many garment makers choose modern methods and technology to producebaju Kurung. Many of them have little knowledge of traditional making and techniques of Baju Kurung. The research faces difficulties to identify the exact year the Baju Kurung was made. Thus, this research used triangulation method to help identify its approximate period, which is reflected by patterns, types of fabrics and age of the owner of the garment.

However, in this research, it only focuses the aesthetics of Baju Kurung from the perspective of making process, use of textiles, form, shape, design line and items for garment coordination such as blouse, skirt, headgear, trousers and waistcloth. The research is based on content analysis, historical evidence, visits to museums and National Archive to support the data.

The literature review offers understanding of the history and background Baju Kurung in the early period of Malay Land mainly from to Before Independence and to Early Independence where pictorial evidence was the main source of information.

Fashion magazines are the main reference for photographic documentation of the development of Baju Kurung especially from to Modern Malaysia and to Millennium Years. This research also gained 2 Kebaya is a long blouse with centre front opening worn by Malay women. The blouse is worn with a matching skirt with deep fold on one side of the body. The blouse is also worn with a matching skirt with deep fold on one side of the body.

The literatures also contribute to form, style and coordination of the Malay traditional costumes specifically Baju Kurung in the early history of the Malay Land. The preliminary study of the Baju Kurung is extracted from Malay classical literatures, historical and cultural literatures and photographic studies to build an understanding of the traditional Baju Kurung. Grace states that study through anthropology, cultural studies, semiotics and history will discuss material culture and give existing interpretation or information of symbolic meanings in a culture visual, customs and mannerism.

Roland Barthes cited by Jones believed that clothing conveyed messages and meaning, which are known as semiotics. Thus, the researcher believed that Baju Kurung also carry the same principle and should be given guidelines to maintain its identity. Existing texts and pictorial records are inadequate. Texts and photographs mostly obtained from museums and the National Archive have been quoted and reproduced repeatedly by previous research.

However, these factors would not affect the result since the research focuses on the proportion of the garments, making process, form, style and coordination Object-Based Research Object-based research is conducted when the object is the major source of information Kawamura,p.

The research obtained and collected information through gathering various samples of Baju Kurung found in museums, boutiques and wardrobe of personal collectors. These samples were collected from every state in the Peninsular of Malaysia without restricting its quantity for each state. However, places in the north of the Peninsular such as Perlis and Penang had limited quantity of Baju Kurung for women in the early s.

This is because the states were known of other types of Malay traditional costumes such as Kebaya and Baju Kedah. Object-based research allows the research to investigate and evaluate the formalistic study and 14 37 process involved in making the Baju Kurung.

The obstacles would be to determine the exact date of the garment since many of the garments were undated. Baju Kurung from the early period were also limited.

The data compiled and documented from the samples are for comparison of proportion, making process and design elements. The data also determines the existence of Malay aesthetics principles in Baju Kurung. Unstructured interviews were conducted with museum and cultural officers, garment makers, academicians and professional experts in Malay costumes specifically Baju Kurung.

The interviews were conducted in casual environment that facilitated direct and indirect questions to the interviewees. The interviewees were prominent individuals who have experiences and knowledge in the area of Baju Kurung.

Well, not really.:

Unstructured interviews and samples provided the research with undocumented data of Baju Kurung. Apart from interview and samples from personal collections, samples were also obtained from recorded photographs and artefacts from museums and archives.

The requirement to accumulate new knowledge Cauvery et. Figure 7 suggests the process of study, data collection and analyzing data. Information gained from unstructured interview is relevant. The information is usually passed on through word of mouth amongst artisans and makers from generation to generation. Among the professionals, academicians and influential individuals, although not restricted to those mentioned, are such as: Break into sub categories according to form, style and coordination.

In order to achieve this objective, the research refers to the Malay Aesthetic Principles in arts and crafts by Zakaria Ali and and other related theories projected in Malay traditional costumes.

The Baju Kurung is regarded as an art object or art product and is assessed based on form, function and content. As such, in the discipline of Malay arts all three basic components existed. These components will be used to assess aesthetic values in Baju Kurung.

The aesthetic principles in Malay arts and crafts as suggested by Zakaria Ali are: Siti Zainon Ismail outlines that the aesthetic values in Malay traditional costumes represents three factors as projected by Argan in Costume as Art The three factors are quality of material, ornamental accessories and style and design, form, coordination and beauty. Due to the factor that Baju Kurung is a functional object, the researcher also refers to Islamic dress criteria; to clothe the body.

The Islamic dress criteria reflect faith and ibadah obligation as required by Islam in the Al Quran and hadiths. Finally, in this research, the role of Malay aesthetic principles in Baju Kurung will become a guideline for designing future Malay garments inspired by Baju Kurung.

By preserving the traditional Baju Kurung and developing Malay modern garments using the Malay aesthetic principles, the heritage will become a national pride and preserve the Malay cultural identity.

To the best of knowledge, there has been little study made in the area of rules and principles explaining the form, style and coordination of the Malay traditional costumes particularly Baju Kurung Siti Zainon Ismail,p.

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The lack of guideline allowed unsuitable modifications made to the Malay traditional costumes and modern garments for Malay community to fit current fashion and trend. Therefore, this research segregates the traditional and modern Baju Kurung by strengthening its definition and recommends Malay aesthetic principles particularly for Baju Kurung to act as guide for future creative work in modern Malay garments.

This will contribute to modest fashion for the Malay community as well as fashion education and industry in Malaysia. The knowledge of rules and principles to Malay costumes will also encourage the appreciation of Malay traditional costumes among the younger generation as well as in creative work, performing arts, fashion and textiles SUMMARY This chapter highlights the background of Baju Kurung and its importance to the Malay community.

The objectives outline the importance of implementation the research. This study is believed significant to the development of Baju Kurung for preserving Baju Kurung as national pride and Malay cultural identity. This research continues with an overview of the history of Peninsular of Malaysia, its people, custom and arts, presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 2 also explicates in detail the form and content on Baju Kurung worn by men and women in the Peninsular of Malaysia. Chapter 3 outlines aesthetics and dress principles in relation to Malay costumes in general.

In this chapter, the research also shows that these theories are built upon the Islamic dress criteria. In Chapter 4, the development of Baju Kurung is presented according to four stages: The stages displayed the development of form of Baju Kurung gathered from samples and observation made to Baju Kurung. Further, the development of Baju Kurung is detailed in terms of the making process in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses the effects of the development of Baju Kurung in Chapter 4 and 5.

Finally, Chapter 7 concludes the findings in Chapter 6 in regards of the objectives presented earlier and recommends for further research in this area. The review continues with beliefs and religion of the Malay people, influences of foreign culture in their life styles, which eventually becomes part of Malay arts and culture. This chapter also discusses Malay arts, focusing on textiles used for traditional Baju Kurung, the design and coordination of the Baju Kurung for men and women as well as method used to construct the garment.

The natives discovered and explored the lands of the Malay Archipelago or the Malay World from south of China down to the islands until Madagascar. In Malay language, Proto Malay is orang asli. The Deutro-Malays lived along the river and not as primitive as the Proto-Malays. Although they practiced animism, they were open to new beliefs.

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